Types of AI & Their Features


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Aug 27, 2020
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Los Angeles
Artificial Intelligence today, is probably the most amazing and detailed creations of humanity to date, disregarding the fact that the area is still largely unexplored. The astounding AI creations that we get to see today are merely a small part of AI.

AI’s powerful capabilities and fast growth have made humans paranoid regarding the proximity and certainty of an AI’s acceptance. The changeover brought by AI in various industries has turned business people and the normal public to think that we humans are very close to achieving the pinnacle of AI. There are several AI Application Development Services that are focusing on and will make these transformations possible gradually.

However, getting to know the types of AI that already exist and are possible to exist will create a clearer picture of AI potentials.

Since AI research aims in making machines imitating human-like respondings, the extent to which an AI system can clone human capabilities is used as a standard for determining the various types of AI.

Types of AI can be labeled under one, among the multiple types of AI, depending on how a machine compares to humans in terms of flexibility and execution.

1. Reactive Machines

These are the oldest forms of Artificial Intelligence systems that have very limited capability. Reactive machines do not have any memory-based functionality.

Features of Reactive Machines :
  • They correspond to the human mind’s capacity to react to various kinds of stimuli.
  • Such machines are incapable of “learning” as they cannot use previously acquired experiences to guide the present actions.
  • These machines can be only used to react to situations that exist presently and that too for a limited set of inputs.
An example of such machines would be IBM’ Deep Blue, i.e. a machine designed to play chess against humans, that beat Garry Kasparov(Grandmaster) in 1997.

2. Limited Memory

Limited Memory machines are those machines that have some additional capabilities than Reactive Machines.

Features of Limited Memory Machines :
  • As the name suggests, limited memory machines can store some information learned from observing past experiences and data
  • All AI machines using deep learning are trained using a sizable proportion of training data that are stored in the memory as pre-programmed data to form a reference model for handling future situations.
  • Almost all the existing and known AI and Machine Learning Development services and applications fall under this category of Artificial Intelligence.
Self-driving cars by Tesla, for example, store pre-programmed data.

These vehicles can judge the environment around them and they adjust the driving as and when required.

3. Theory of Mind

The previously discussed types of AI are found in exuberance, but the next two exist, either in conceptual form or in the form of work-in-progress.
Theory of Mind is the type of next-level AI system that researchers are still engaged in innovating.

Features of Theory of Mind AI :
  • A theory of mind AI will be capable of better understanding the entities it has been interacting with.
  • This level of AI is based on the psychology that these machines will be capable of understanding that living beings like humans and animals have feelings and thoughts that can affect their behavior.
  • The theory of Mind level of AI machines would be required to use the pieces of information gathered from humans and learned from it, which would then be used to inform how such AI machines react or communicate to various situations.
A very primitive example of the theory of mind technology would be Sophia, the world-famous humanoid by Hanson Robotics. Whilst Sophia is unable to go through human emotions, she is capable of holding a basic conversation, recognizing images, and also can respond with appropriate facial expressions while having interactions with humans.

4. Self Awareness

These are the most complex AI machines that humans might be able to imagine or visualize ever. This is the final level of AI development and currently exists hypothetically.

Features of Self-Awareness AI :
  • Self-awareness AI is self-explanatory and has advanced to be so close to the normal human brain that it has a gradually developed self-awareness quality.
  • Constructing this type of AI is termed to be the ultimate goal of AI research and is centuries away from coming into existence, materialistically.
  • Such AI machines are believed to have emotions, beliefs, potential desires, and specific needs of their own.
Developing such AI can boost up our civilization potentially by advancements but, can also be disastrous because Self-aware AI machines having the idea of self-preservation may directly or indirectly bewitch the end of humanity.

At this point, it is difficult to visualize the state of this world when more advanced types of AI come into existence. However, this is quite clear that there is a long journey ahead to get there as the present condition of AI compared to where it is planned to reach is still in its fundamental stage.

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