According to what I have searched, C++, Java, Phyton, Simplicity, and Solidity are the top 5 blockchain programming languages. Those programming languages are used to develop different cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple and many more. Maybe this link will help you to know more about it.
Blockchain programming mainly comes from C++, Java, Python or C# that makes in developing of Crypto-currencies that we are using now Bitcoin.
In Blockchain every 10 minutes a transaction process through blocks and attached to the previous blocks, so on.
Blockchain programming is just about any other programming – Be it app development or web development. But in the case of blockchain programming, it's about making solutions to problems related to finance and money. Blockchain is a distributed ledger so programming with blockchain involves using this ledger to develop solutions to common financial problems.
Like the Bitcoin eliminates middlemen from peer to peer transactions.
Most known programming language for me is Solidity language. But you can use some other object oriented programming languages like C# and Java. C++ is a nice language too, I guess Bitcoin was made in C++.
There are a lot of blockchain programming like Java, C++, C#, Phyton, Simplicity, Solidity and many more. This are most commonly known programming language that we might encounter in developing this bitcoin and also other different cryptocurrencies.
The word blockchain has two words. Block and chain. Block means similar things that is grouped together and chain means connection of the similar items. When combined blockchain it is a decentralized digital ledger that is used to record transactions on any electronic devices. Blockchain programming is how you will create a “blockchain system” using programming languages.
Don't know much about specific blockchain programming, but in using the context of 'crypto'currencies, we could define it as programming while using the cryptography as a way of verifying and securing something. It's much like regular programming, minus the UI and focuses solely on secure algorithms and cryptography methods.